New Criticism’s Relation to Modernism

New Criticism and Modernism emerged out of a world that was perceived as fragmented, with the Enlightenment ideals of rationality, progress and justice discredited; the artist alienated from the social and political world, and art and literature marginalised. The vast devastation, psychologIcal demoralisation and economic depression consequent to the war intensified rejection of.the bourgeoisie modes… Read More New Criticism’s Relation to Modernism

IA Richards’ Concept of the Two Uses of Language

IA Richards, the New Critic, who, since Coleridge, formulated a systematic and complete theory of poetry, discusses in Principles of Literary Criticism the theory of language and the two uses of language the scientific and the emotive. David Daiches says, “Richards conducts this investigation in order to come to some clear can about what imaginative… Read More IA Richards’ Concept of the Two Uses of Language

Roman Jakobson’s Concepts of Metaphor and Metonymy

In his 1956 essay, Two Aspects of Language and-Two Types of Aphasic Disturbances, Jakobson proposes that language has a bipolar structure, oscillating between the poles of metaphor and metonymy, and that any discourse is developed along the semantic lines of the metaphoric, where one topic leads to another through similarity or substitution, and metonymic, where… Read More Roman Jakobson’s Concepts of Metaphor and Metonymy

FR Leavis’ Concept of Great Tradition

FR Leavis’  (1948), an uncompromising critical and polemical survey of English fiction, controversially begins thus: “The great English novelists are Jane Austen, George Eliot, Henry James and Joseph Conrad!’ He regards these writers as the best because they not only “change the possibilities of art for practitioners and readers”, but also promote an “awareness of… Read More FR Leavis’ Concept of Great Tradition

The American New Critics

American New Criticism, emerging in the 1920s and especially dominant in the 1940s and 1950s, is equivalent to the establishing of the new professional criticism in the emerging discipline of ‘English’ in British higher education during the inter-war period. As always, origins and explanations for its rise – in its heyday to almost hegemonic proportions – are complex and finally… Read More The American New Critics